International Journal of Yoga
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Exploring the therapeutic effects of yoga and its ability to increase quality of life
Catherine Woodyard
July-December 2011, 4(2):49-54
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.85485  PMID:22022122
The objective of this study is to assess the findings of selected articles regarding the therapeutic effects of yoga and to provide a comprehensive review of the benefits of regular yoga practice. As participation rates in mind-body fitness programs such as yoga continue to increase, it is important for health care professionals to be informed about the nature of yoga and the evidence of its many therapeutic effects. Thus, this manuscript provides information regarding the therapeutic effects of yoga as it has been studied in various populations concerning a multitude of different ailments and conditions. Therapeutic yoga is defined as the application of yoga postures and practice to the treatment of health conditions and involves instruction in yogic practices and teachings to prevent reduce or alleviate structural, physiological, emotional and spiritual pain, suffering or limitations. Results from this study show that yogic practices enhance muscular strength and body flexibility, promote and improve respiratory and cardiovascular function, promote recovery from and treatment of addiction, reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and chronic pain, improve sleep patterns, and enhance overall well-being and quality of life.
  61 55,403 1,248
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Health in normal healthy volunteers
Sudheer Deshpande, HR Nagendra, Nagarathna Raghuram
January-June 2008, 1(1):2-10
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.36785  PMID:21829278
Objective : To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure) and general health in normal adults. Methods : Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas , pranayama , meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts) for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality) was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI) which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled), Rajas (violent and uncontrolled) and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled). The general health status (total health), which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS), anxiety and insomnia (AI), social dysfunction (SF) and severe depression (SP), was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Results : Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05, independent samples t test). Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test). SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test). Conclusions : There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than in Yoga and Tamas reduced in PE. The general health status improved in both the Yoga and control groups.
  33 7,398 433
REVIEW ARTICLE
Yoga and heart rate variability: A comprehensive review of the literature
Anupama Tyagi, Marc Cohen
July-December 2016, 9(2):97-113
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.183712  PMID:27512317
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a proxy for health and fitness and indicator of autonomic regulation and therefore, appears well placed to assess the changes occurring with mind.-body practices that facilitate autonomic balance. While many studies suggest that yoga influences HRV, such studies have not been systematically reviewed. We aimed to systematically review all published papers that report on yoga practices and HRV. A comprehensive search of multiple databases was conducted and all studies that reported a measure of HRV associated with any yoga practice were included. Studies were categorized by the study design and type of yoga practice. A total of 59 studies were reviewed involving a total of 2358 participants. Most studies were performed in India on relatively small numbers of healthy male yoga practitioners during a single laboratory session. Of the reviewed studies, 15 were randomized controlled trials with 6 having a Jadad score of 3. The reviewed studies suggest that yoga can affect cardiac autonomic regulation with increased HRV and vagal dominance during yoga practices. Regular yoga practitioners were also found to have increased vagal tone at rest compared to non-yoga practitioners. It is premature to draw any firm conclusions about yoga and HRV as most studies were of poor quality, with small sample sizes and insufficient reporting of study design and statistical methods. Rigorous studies with detailed reporting of yoga practices and any corresponding changes in respiration are required to determine the effect of yoga on HRV.
  32 12,330 424
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effects of yoga on symptom management in breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial
Vadiraja S Hosakote, M Raghavendra Rao, R Hongasandra Nagendra, Nagarathna Raghuram, Rekha Mohan, Vanitha Nanjundiah, S Kodaganuru Gopinath, BS Srinath, MS Vishweshwara, YS Madhavi, S Ajaikumar Basavalingaiah, Ramesh S Bilimagga, Nalini Rao
July-December 2009, 2(2):73-79
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.60048  PMID:20842268
Objectives: This study compares the effects of an integrated yoga program with brief supportive therapy on distressful symptoms in breast cancer outpatients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight stage II and III breast cancer outpatients were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 44) or brief supportive therapy (n = 44) prior to their radiotherapy treatment. Intervention consisted of yoga sessions lasting 60 min daily while the control group was imparted supportive therapy once in 10 days during the course of their adjuvant radiotherapy. Assessments included Rotterdam Symptom Check List and European Organization for Research in the Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life (EORTC QoL C30) symptom scale. Assessments were done at baseline and after 6 weeks of radiotherapy treatment. Results: A GLM repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant decrease in psychological distress (P = 0.01), fatigue (P = 0.007), insomnia (P = 0.001), and appetite loss (P = 0.002) over time in the yoga group as compared to controls. There was significant improvement in the activity level (P = 0.02) in the yoga group as compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between physical and psychological distress and fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, and constipation. There was a significant negative correlation between the activity level and fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, and appetite loss. Conclusion: The results suggest beneficial effects with yoga intervention in managing cancer- and treatment-related symptoms in breast cancer patients.
  25 9,908 243
Yoga in Australia: Results of a national survey
Stephen Penman, Marc Cohen, Philip Stevens, Sue Jackson
July-December 2012, 5(2):92-101
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98217  PMID:22869991
Introduction: The therapeutic benefits of yoga and meditation are well documented, yet little is known about the practice of yoga in Australia or elsewhere, whether as a physical activity, a form of therapy, a spiritual path or a lifestyle. Materials and Methods: To investigate the practice of yoga in Australia, a national survey of yoga practitioners was conducted utilizing a comprehensive web-based questionnaire. Respondents were self-selecting to participate. A total of 3,892 respondents completed the survey. Sixty overseas respondents and 1265 yoga teachers (to be reported separately) were excluded, leaving 2,567 yoga practitioner respondents. Results: The typical yoga survey respondent was a 41-year-old, tertiary educated, employed, health-conscious female (85% women). Asana (postures) and vinyasa (sequences of postures) represented 61% of the time spent practicing, with the other 39% devoted to the gentler practices of relaxation, pranayama (breathing techniques), meditation and instruction. Respondents commonly started practicing yoga for health and fitness but often continued practicing for stress management. One in five respondents practiced yoga for a specific health or medical reason which was seen to be improved by yoga practice. Of these, more people used yoga for stress management and anxiety than back, neck or shoulder problems, suggesting that mental health may be the primary health-related motivation for practicing yoga. Healthy lifestyle choices were seen to be more prevalent in respondents with more years of practice. Yoga-related injuries occurring under supervision in the previous 12 months were low at 2.4% of respondents. Conclusions: Yoga practice was seen to assist in the management of specific health issues and medical conditions. Regular yoga practice may also exert a healthy lifestyle effect including vegetarianism, non-smoking, reduced alcohol consumption, increased exercise and reduced stress with resulting cost benefits to the community.
  24 18,067 149
REVIEW ARTICLE
Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health
Sameer A Zope, Rakesh A Zope
January-June 2013, 6(1):4-10
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.105935  PMID:23440614
Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.
  24 21,531 489
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Neurohemodynamic correlates of 'OM' chanting: A pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging study
Bangalore G Kalyani, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Rashmi Arasappa, Naren P Rao, Sunil V Kalmady, Rishikesh V Behere, Hariprasad Rao, Mandapati K Vasudev, Bangalore N Gangadhar
January-June 2011, 4(1):3-6
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.78171  PMID:21654968
Background: A sensation of vibration is experienced during audible 'OM' chanting. This has the potential for vagus nerve stimulation through its auricular branches and the effects on the brain thereof. The neurohemodynamic correlates of 'OM' chanting are yet to be explored. Materials and Methods: Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), the neurohemodynamic correlates of audible 'OM' chanting were examined in right-handed healthy volunteers (n=12; nine men). The 'OM' chanting condition was compared with pronunciation of "ssss" as well as a rest state. fMRI analysis was done using Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 (SPM5). Results: In this study, significant deactivation was observed bilaterally during 'OM' chanting in comparison to the resting brain state in bilateral orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyri, thalami and hippocampi. The right amygdala too demonstrated significant deactivation. No significant activation was observed during 'OM' chanting. In contrast, neither activation nor deactivation occurred in these brain regions during the comparative task - namely the 'ssss' pronunciation condition. Conclusion: The neurohemodynamic correlates of 'OM' chanting indicate limbic deactivation. As similar observations have been recorded with vagus nerve stimulation treatment used in depression and epilepsy, the study findings argue for a potential role of this 'OM' chanting in clinical practice.
  23 21,083 282
REVIEW ARTICLE
Modulation of immune responses in stress by Yoga
Sarika Arora, Jayashree Bhattacharjee
July-December 2008, 1(2):45-55
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.43541  PMID:21829284
Stress is a constant factor in today's fastpaced life that can jeopardize our health if left unchecked. It is only in the last half century that the role of stress in every ailment from the common cold to AIDS has been emphasized, and the mechanisms involved in this process have been studied. Stress influences the immune response presumably through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, hypothalamic pituitary-gonadal axis, and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. Various neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, hormones, and cytokines mediate these complex bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system. The effects of stress on the immune responses result in alterations in the number of immune cells and cytokine dysregulation. Various stress management strategies such as meditation, yoga, hypnosis, and muscle relaxation have been shown to reduce the psychological and physiological effects of stress in cancers and HIV infection. This review aims to discuss the effect of stress on the immune system and examine how relaxation techniques such as Yoga and meditation could regulate the cytokine levels and hence, the immune responses during stress.
  19 17,394 1,201
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Mindfulness-based stress reduction program in coronary heart disease: A randomized control trial
Manish J Parswani, Mahendra P Sharma, SS Iyengar
July-December 2013, 6(2):111-117
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.113405  PMID:23930029
Background: Psychological risk factors such as anxiety and depression have been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Stress can have an impact on the risk factors for the disease, such as high blood pressure (BP), physical inactivity and being overweight. Aims: Examine the effect of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program on symptoms of anxiety and depression, perceived stress, BP and body mass index (BMI) in patients with CHD. Settings and Design: Intervention was carried out at an Outpatient clinic. Parallel group - MBSR group; and treatment-as-usual group (TAU) - randomized control design with pre- (baseline), post-intervention and follow-up assessments was adopted. Materials and Methods: Thirty male patients, age range (30-65 years) with CHD were randomly allocated to either group. The therapeutic program comprised of eight weekly sessions of structured MBSR intervention for the MBSR group and one health education session for the TAU group. Regular medical intervention and monthly consultations with the cardiologist were consistent for both groups. The main outcome measures were: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale (perceived stress), BP and BMI. Statistical Analysis: Independent sample t-tests, chi square test and paired sample t-test were used. Results: All patients completed intervention in the MBSR group. Significant reduction was observed in symptoms of anxiety and depression, perceived stress, BP and BMI in patients of the MBSR group after the completion of intervention assessment. At 3-month follow-up, therapeutic gains were maintained in patients of the MBSR group. Conclusion: The MBSR program is effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression, perceived stress, BP and BMI in patients with CHD.
  18 9,999 142
Sleep quality and body composition variations in obese male adults after 14 weeks of yoga intervention: A randomized controlled trial
PB Rshikesan, Pailoor Subramanya, Deepeshwar Singh
September-December 2017, 10(3):128-137
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_53_16  PMID:29422743
Background: Obesity is a big challenge all over the world. It is associated with many noncommunicable diseases. Yoga known to be add-on treatment may be effective for obesity control. Aim: To assess the effect of integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) for body composition and quality of sleep in adult obese male. Subjects and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted for 14 weeks on obese male of urban setting. Eighty individuals were randomly divided into two groups, i.e., yoga group (n = 40; age; 40.03 ± 8.74 years, body mass index [BMI] 28.7 ± 2.35 kg/m2) and control group (age; 42.20 ± 12.06 years, BMI 27.70 ± 2.05 kg/m2). The IAYT was imparted to yoga group for 1½ hour for 5 days in a week for 14 weeks. The control group continued their regular activities. The body composition by InBody R20 and sleep quality by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were assessed. Statistical analysis was done for within and between groups using SPSS version 21. The correlation analysis was done on the difference in pre-post values. Results: The results showed that weight (P = 0.004), BMI (P = 0.008), bone mass (P = 0.017), obesity degree (P = 0.005), and mineral mass (P = 0.046) were improved in yoga group and no change in control group (P > 0.05). The global score of PSQI improved (P = 0.017) in yoga group alone. Conclusion: The results indicate the beneficial effects of IAYT on body composition and sleep quality in obese males. The yoga practice may reduce obesity with the improvement in quality of life.
  18 5,298 78
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
A randomized controlled pilot study of the therapeutic effects of yoga in people with Parkinson's disease
Neena K Sharma, Kristin Robbins, Kathleen Wagner, Yvonne M Colgrove
January-June 2015, 8(1):74-79
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.146070  PMID:25558138
Background: Exercise can be beneficial for cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal or neurological systems, and other factors including mood, and may be beneficial in reducing fall risks, dementia and variables associated with quality of life (QOL). Parkinson's disease (PD) produces progressive motor and cognitive deterioration that may leave those inflicted unable to participate in standard exercise programs. Alternative forms of exercise such as yoga may be successful in improving physical function, QOL and physiological variables for overall well-being. Aim: This randomized controlled pilot study investigated the effectiveness of yoga intervention on physiological and health-related QOL measures in people with PD. Methods and Materials: Thirteen people with stage 1-2 PD were randomized to either a yoga (n = 8) or a control group (n = 5). The yoga group participated in twice-weekly yoga sessions for 12 weeks. Participants were tested at baseline, and at 6 and 12 weeks using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), clinical measures of health-related QOL and physiological measures. Results: Significant improvement in UPDRS scores (P = .006), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.036) and average forced vital capacity (P = 0.03) was noted in the yoga group over time. Changes between groups were also noted in two SF-36 subscales. Positive trends of improvement were noted in depression scores (P = 0.056), body weight (P = 0.056) and forced expiratory volume (P = 0.059). Yoga participants reported more positive symptom changes including immediate tremor reduction. Conclusions: The results suggest that yoga may improve aspects of QOL and physiological functions in stages 1-2 PD. Future larger studies are needed to confirm and extend our findings of the effects of yoga in PD.
  17 9,951 195
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A multicomponent yoga-based, breath intervention program as an adjunctive treatment in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder with or without comorbidities
Martin A Katzman, Monica Vermani, Patricia L Gerbarg, Richard P Brown, Christina Iorio, Michele Davis, Catherine Cameron, Dina Tsirgielis
January-June 2012, 5(1):57-65
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.91716  PMID:22346068
Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) course in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) outpatients, who after eight weeks of an appropriate dose of traditional therapy had not yet achieved remission. Subjects: The adult participants (18-65 years) were outpatients with a primary diagnosis of GAD with or without comorbidities on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Participants had a minimum of eight weeks standard treatment with an appropriate dose of a standard prescription anxiolytic, a clinician global impression-severity (CGI-S) score of 5-7, a Hamilton anxiety scale (HAM-A) total score ≥20 including a score of >2 on the anxious mood and tension items. Materials and Methods: Forty-one patients were enrolled in an open-label trial of the SKY course as an adjunct to standard treatment of GAD at the START Clinic for Mood and Anxiety Disorders, a tertiary care mood and anxiety disorder clinic in Toronto. The SKY course was administered over five days (22 h total). Subjects were encouraged to practice the yoga breathing techniques at home for 20 min per day after the course and were offered group practice sessions for 2 h once a week led by certified yoga instructors. The primary outcome measure was the mean change from pre-treatment on the HAM-A scale. Psychological measures were obtained at baseline and four weeks after completing the intervention. Results:Thirty-one patients completed the program (mean age 42.6 ± 13.3 years). Among completers, significant reductions occurred in the pre- and post-intervention mean HAM-A total score (t=4.59; P<0.01) and psychic subscale (t=5.00; P≤0.01). The response rate was 73% and the remission rate 41% as measured on the HAM-A. Conclusion: The results of this small pilot trial suggest that the SKY course represents a potentially valuable adjunct to standard pharmacotherapy in patients with GAD or treatment-resistant GAD, and warrants further investigation. In particular, changes in worry and body symptoms showed significant improvements that may further our understanding of the mechanism of change in the tolerance of anxiety and worry.
  16 14,244 160
Niyantrita Madhumeha Bharata 2017, methodology for a nationwide diabetes prevalence estimate: Part 1
HR Nagendra, R Nagarathna, SK Rajesh, S Amit, S Telles, A Hankey
September-December 2019, 12(3):179-192
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_40_18  PMID:31543627
Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) poses an ever-increasing threat to people's health worldwide. India has reported high rates of incidence of T2DM. The dangers make accurate assessment of its burden and intervention of lifestyle change, an urgent necessity. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to estimate the nationwide prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes, followed by a translational lifestyle trial. Methodology: The Indian Yoga Association was commissioned in 2016–2017 by the Government of India to conduct this study which was undertaken in two phases: Phase 1 was to estimate the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes across the country, and Phase 2 was to conduct a randomized controlled trial using a validated yoga lifestyle protocol. This paper highlights the unique methodology of Phase 1 of the study. The first stage was screening (February to April 2017) for adults (>20 years) with high risk for diabetes on Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS) on mobile app, using a random cluster sampling survey method. All households in the rural (4 villages with about 500 adult population/village) and urban (2 census enumeration blocks [CEBs] of about 1000 adult population/block) sectors of 65 districts (one per ten districts in the entire country) from 29 out of 35 states of India were approached. In the second stage, detailed assessments (sociodemographic, clinical details, A1c, lipid profile, body mass index, stress, and tobacco) were carried out on those with high risk on IDRS and on all self-reported diabetes individuals. Results: In the first stage of door-to-door visit, 240,968 adults in all households of the selected clusters of villages and CEBs were approached. Of these, 162,330 responded. The respondents in the second stage for detailed assessments in the selected cohort were 50,199 (48% rural and 52% urban) adults. Of these, 7472 were self-reported known diabetes adults and the remaining were 42,737. Prevalence estimates for the country will follow in the future publications. Conclusion: This rapid survey completed within 3 months in the entire country using trained volunteers offers the methodology to obtain a quick estimate of diabetes and high-risk population to implement any lifestyle program.
  16 3,227 106
Effect of yoga on quality of life of CLBP patients: A randomized control study
Padmini Tekur, Singphow Chametcha, Ramarao Nagendra Hongasandra, Nagarathna Raghuram
January-June 2010, 3(1):10-17
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.66773  PMID:20948896
Context: In two of the earlier Randomized Control Trials on yoga for chronic lower back pain (CLBP), 12 to 16 weeks of intervention were found effective in reducing pain and disability. Aim: To study the efficacy of a residential short term intensive yoga program on quality of life in CLBP. Materials and Methods: About 80 patients with CLBP (females 37) registered for a week long treatment at SVYASA Holistic Health Centre in Bengaluru, India. They were randomized into two groups (40 each). The yoga group practiced a specific module for CLBP comprising of asanas (physical postures), pranayama (breathing practices), meditation and lectures on yoga philosophy. The control group practiced physical therapy exercises for back pain. Perceived stress scale (PSS) was used to measure baseline stress levels. Outcome measures were WHOQOL Bref for quality of life and straight leg raising test (SLR) using a Goniometer. Results: There were significant negative correlations (Pearson's, P<0.005, r>0.30) between baseline PSS with all four domains and the total score of WHOQOLBref. All the four domains' WHOQOLBref improved in the yoga group (repeated measures ANOVA P=0.001) with significant group*time interaction (P<0.05) and differences between groups (P<0.01). SLR increased in both groups (P=0.001) with higher increase in yoga (31.1 % right, 28.4 % left) than control (18.7% right, 21.5 % left) group with significant group*time interaction (SLR right leg P=0.044). Conclusion: In CLBP, a negative correlation exists between stress and quality of life. Yoga increases quality of life and spinal flexibility better than physical therapy exercises.
  15 14,446 337
Effect of integrated yogic practices on positive and negative emotions in healthy adults
Lakshmi Narasimhan, R Nagarathna, HR Nagendra
January-June 2011, 4(1):13-19
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.78174  PMID:21654970
Background : Studies on affective wellbeing have shown the beneficial role of positive emotions on cognitive processing and the harmful role of negative emotions on coping, stress and health status. Studies have shown that yoga practices reduce anxiety and depression and improve wellbeing. Objective: The aims of the study were to, (i) examine the safety and feasibility of conducting a weeklong free yoga camp, and (ii) assess its impact on the negative and positive affect in normal healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods : In this open-arm study 450 participants were taught integrated yoga module. It included asanas, pranayama, relaxation, notional correction and devotional sessions. Assessment was carried out on the first and last day of the camp, using a modified version of Positive Affect Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). It has ten questions each to measure positive (PA) and negative affect (NA). Nine questions have been added which are referred as other positive affect (OPA) and other negative affect (ONA) domains. Results: Three hundred and twelve sets of pre-post data were analyzed. There was an increase in PA of PANAS by 13% (P<0.001, Wilcoxon's signed rank test) and OPA by 17% (P<0.001). The NA reduced by 47% (P<0.001) and ONA by 48% (P<0.001). Conclusion: It is feasible and safe to conduct a weeklong yoga camp in an urban setting, and integrated yoga practices can reduce the negative affect and increase the positive affect within one week.
  15 7,917 124
Effect of integrated yoga practices on immune responses in examination stress - A preliminary study
Aravind Gopal, Sunita Mondal, Asha Gandhi, Sarika Arora, Jayashree Bhattacharjee
January-June 2011, 4(1):26-32
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.78178  PMID:21654972
Background: Stress is often associated with an increased occurrence of autonomic, cardiovascular, and immune system pathology. This study was done to evaluate the impact of stress on psychological, physiological parameters, and immune system during medical term -academic examination and the effect of yoga practices on the same. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on sixty first-year MBBS students randomly assigned to yoga group and control group (30 each). The yoga group underwent integrated yoga practices for 35 minutes daily in the presence of trained yoga teacher for 12 weeks. Control group did not undergo any kind of yoga practice or stress management. Physiological parameters like heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were measured. Global Assessment of Recent Stress Scale and Spielbergers State Anxiety score were assessed at baseline and during the examination. Serum cortisol levels, IL-4, and IFN-γ levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Result: In the yoga group, no significant difference was observed in physiological parameters during the examination stress, whereas in the control group, a significant increase was observed. Likewise, the indicators of psychological stress showed highly significant difference in control group compared with significant difference in yoga group. During the examination, the increase in serum cortical and decrease in serum IFN-γ in yoga group was less significant (P<0.01) than in the control group (P<0.001). Both the groups demonstrated an increase in serum IL-4 levels, the changes being insignificant for the duration of the study. Conclusion: Yoga resists the autonomic changes and impairment of cellular immunity seen in examination stress.
  15 12,793 180
Methodology of Niyantrita Madhumeha Bharata Abhiyaan- 2017, a nationwide multicentric trial on the effect of a validated culturally acceptable lifestyle intervention for primary prevention of diabetes: Part 2
R Nagarathna, SK Rajesh, S Amit, S Patil, A Anand, HR Nagendra
September-December 2019, 12(3):193-205
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_38_19  PMID:31543628
Background: The rapidly increasing diabetes burden, reaching epidemic proportions despite decades of efforts, reflects our failure to translate the proven evidence for prevention of diabetes. Yoga, with its holistic approach, alters the habituated patterns of lifestyles and behaviour. Motivated by the accumulating evidence, the Government of India funded a large randomized controlled trial. Aims and Objectives: The twin objectives were: (a) estimate the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes through a parallel multisite stratified cluster sampling method and (b) implement NMB 2017 (niyantrita madhumeha bharata abhiyaan), a randomized control trial using yoga based lifestyle program. Materials and Methods: Screening for Indian Diabetes Risk score(IDRS) was conducted in randomly selected clusters in all 7 zones (65 districts from 29 states/union territories) of India. This was followed by detailed assessments in those with known diabetes and high risk (≥60) on IDRS. Those who satisfied the selection criteria and consented were recruited for the two armed waitlisted randomized control trial. A validated remedial diabetesspecific integrated yoga lifestyle module was taught to the experimental arm by certified volunteers of Indian Yoga Association. Followup assessments were done after 3 months in both groups. In this article, we report the methodology of the trial. Results: Response to door to door visits (n-240,968 adults >20yrs) in randomly selected urban and rural households for screening was 162,330; detailed assessments (A1c, lipid profile, BMI, stress, tobacco etc) were performed on 50,199 individuals. Of these 12466 (6531 yoga 5935 control) consented and for the RCT; 52% females, 48% males; 38% rural, 62% urban; BMI 21.1 ± 3.8; waist circumference 91.7 ± 11.9. A1c in diabetes subjects in yoga group was 7.63 ± 2.17 and 7.86 ± 2.13 in control group. Conclusion: This unique methodology provides the evidence to implement a validated yoga life style module using yoga volunteers in all parts of the country which is an urgent need to prevent India from becoming the global capital for diabetes.
  14 3,177 86
EDITORIAL
Yoga for COVID-19
HR Nagendra
May-August 2020, 13(2):87-88
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_27_20  
  13 7,698 399
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress
Amit Kauts, Neelam Sharma
January-June 2009, 2(1):39-43
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.53860  PMID:21234215
Background: Academic performance is concerned with the quantity and quality of learning attained in a subject or group of subjects after a long period of instruction. Excessive stress hampers students' performance. Improvement in academic performance and alertness has been reported in several yogic studies. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. Materials and Methods: The study started with 800 adolescent students; 159 high-stress students and 142 low-stress students were selected on the basis of scores obtained through Stress Battery. Experimental group and control group were given pre test in three subjects, i.e., Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. A yoga module consisting of yoga asanas, pranayama, meditation, and a value orientation program was administered on experimental group for 7 weeks. The experimental and control groups were post-tested for their performance on the three subjects mentioned above. Results: The results show that the students, who practiced yoga performed better in academics. The study further shows that low-stress students performed better than high-stress students, meaning thereby that stress affects the students' performance.
  13 22,705 1,042
Effect of integrated yoga therapy on pain, morning stiffness and anxiety in osteoarthritis of the knee joint: A randomized control study
John Ebnezar, Raghuram Nagarathna, Bali Yogitha, Hongasandra Ramarao Nagendra
January-June 2012, 5(1):28-36
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.91708  PMID:22346063
Aim: To study the effect of integrated yoga on pain, morning stiffness and anxiety in osteoarthritis of knees. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty participants with OA knees (35-80 years) were randomly assigned to yoga or control group. Both groups had transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment followed by intervention (40 min) for two weeks with follow up for three months. The integrated yoga consisted of yogic loosening and strengthening practices, asanas, relaxation, pranayama and meditation. The control group had physiotherapy exercises. Assessments were done on 15 th (post 1) and 90 th day (post 2). Results: Resting pain (numerical rating scale) reduced better (P<0.001, Mann-Whitney U test) in yoga group (post 1=33.6% and post 2=71.8%) than control group (post 1=13.4% and post 2=37.5%). Morning stiffness decreased more (P<0.001) in yoga (post 1=68.6% and post 2=98.1%) than control group (post 1=38.6% and post 2=71.6%). State anxiety (STAI-1) reduced (P<0.001) by 35.5% (post 1) and 58.4% (post 2) in the yoga group and 15.6% (post 1) and 38.8% (post 2) in the control group; trait anxiety (STAI 2) reduced (P<0.001) better (post 1=34.6% and post 2=57.10%) in yoga than control group (post 1=14.12% and post 2=34.73%). Systolic blood pressure reduced (P<0.001) better in yoga group (post 1=−7.93% and post 2=−15.7%) than the control group (post 1=−1.8% and post 2=−3.8%). Diastolic blood pressure reduced (P<0.001) better in yoga group (post 1=−7.6% and post 2=−16.4%) than the control group (post 1=−2.1% and post 2=−5.0%). Pulse rate reduced (P<0.001) better in yoga group (post 1=−8.41% and post 2=−12.4%) than the control group (post 1=−5.1% and post 2=−7.1%). Conclusion: Integrated approach of yoga therapy is better than physiotherapy exercises as an adjunct to transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment in reducing pain, morning stiffness, state and trait anxiety, blood pressure and pulse rate in patients with OA knees.
  13 11,322 129
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Changes in pain intensity and health related quality of life with Iyengar yoga in nonspecific chronic low back pain: A randomized controlled study
Gopal S Nambi, Dipika Inbasekaran, Ratan Khuman, Surbala Devi, Shanmugananth , K Jagannathan
January-June 2014, 7(1):48-53
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.123481  PMID:25035607
Background: Nonspecific chronic low back (nCLBP) pain is prevalent among adult population and often leads to functional limitations, psychological symptoms, lower quality of life (QOL), and higher healthcare costs. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of Iyengar yoga therapy on pain intensity and health related quality of life (HRQOL) with nCLBP. Aim of the Study: To compare the effect of Iyengar yoga therapy and conventional exercise therapy on pain intensity and HRQOL in nonspecific chronic low back pain. Materials and Methods: Experimental study with random sampling technique. Subjects/Intervention: Sixty subjects who fulfilled the selection criteria were randomly assigned to Iyengar yoga (yoga group, n = 30) and control group (exercise group, n = 30). Participants completed low back pain evaluation form and HRQOL-4 questionnaire before their intervention and again 4 weeks and 6 month later. Yoga group underwent 29 yogic postures training and exercise group had undergone general exercise program for 4 weeks. Statistics: Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze group differences over time, while controlling for baseline differences. Results: Patients in both groups experienced significant reduction in pain and improvement in HRQOL. In visual analogue scale (VAS) yoga group showed reduction of 72.81% ( P = 0.001) as compared to exercise group 42.50% ( P = 0.001). In HRQOL, yoga group showed reduction of 86.99% ( P = 0.001) as compared to exercise group 67.66% ( P = 0.001). Conclusion: These results suggest that Iyengar yoga provides better improvement in pain reduction and improvement in HRQOL in nonspecific chronic back pain than general exercise.
  13 12,865 192
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Application of integrated yoga therapy to increase imitation skills in children with autism spectrum disorder
Shantha Radhakrishna
January-June 2010, 3(1):26-30
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.66775  PMID:20948898
Background/Aim: Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills, which impede the acquisition of more complex behavior and socialization. Imitation is often targeted early in intervention plans and continues to be addressed throughout the child's treatment. The use of integrated approach to yoga therapy (IAYT) as a complementary therapy for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is rarely reported and little is known on the effectiveness of such therapies. This study investigated IAYT as a treatment method with children with ASD to increase imitative skills. Materials and Methods: Parents and six children with ASD participated in a 10-month program of 5-weekly sessions and regular practice at home. Pre, mid and post treatment assessments included observers and parent ratings of children's imitation skills in tasks related to imitation skills such as gross motor actions, vocalization, complex imitation, oral facial movements and imitating breathing exercises. Results: Improvement in children's imitation skills especially pointing to body, postural and oral facial movements. Parents reported change in the play pattern of these children with toys, peers and objects at home. Conclusions: This study indicates that IAYT may offer benefits as an effective tool to increase imitation, cognitive skills and social-communicative behaviors in children with ASD. In addition, children exhibited increased skills in eye contact, sitting tolerance, non-verbal communication and receptive skills to verbal commands related to spatial relationship.
  12 11,215 272
Effect of an integrated approach of yoga therapy on quality of life in osteoarthritis of the knee joint: A randomized control study
John Ebnezar, Raghuram Nagarathna, Yogitha Bali, Hongasandra Ramarao Nagendra
July-December 2011, 4(2):55-63
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.85486  PMID:22022123
Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of addition of integrated yoga therapy to therapeutic exercises in osteoarthritis (OA) of knee joints. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective randomized active control trial. A total of t participants with OA of knee joints between 35 and 80 years (yoga, 59.56 ± 9.54 and control, 59.42 ± 10.66) from the outpatient department of Dr. John's Orthopedic Center, Bengaluru, were randomly assigned to receive yoga or physiotherapy exercises after transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment of the affected knee joints. Both groups practiced supervised intervention (40 min per day) for 2 weeks (6 days per week) with followup for 3 months. The module of integrated yoga consisted of shithilikaranavyayama (loosening and strengthening), asanas, relaxation techniques, pranayama, meditation and didactic lectures on yama, niyama, jnana yoga, bhakti yoga, and karma yoga for a healthy lifestyle change. The control group also had supervised physiotherapy exercises. A total of 118 (yoga) and 117 (control) were available for final analysis. Results: Significant differences were observed within (P < 0.001, Wilcoxon's) and between groups (P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test) on all domains of the Short Form-36 (P < 0.004), with better results in the yoga group than in the control group, both at 15 th day and 90 th day. Conclusion: An integrated approach of yoga therapy is better than therapeutic exercises as an adjunct to transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment in improving knee disability and quality of life in patients with OA knees.
  12 13,844 137
Impact of Yoga Nidra on psychological general wellbeing in patients with menstrual irregularities: A randomized controlled trial
Khushbu Rani, SC Tiwari, Uma Singh, GG Agrawal, Archana Ghildiyal, Neena Srivastava
January-June 2011, 4(1):20-25
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.78176  PMID:21654971
Background: Yogic relaxation therapy (Yoga Nidra) has been effectively prescribed in conjunction with other medical and yogic procedures in the management of severe psychosomatic diseases, including cancer, bronchial asthma, colitis, peptic ulcer and menstrual irregularities. Aim of the study: To assess the impact of Yoga Nidra on psychological problems in patients with menstrual disorders. Materials and Methods: Patients were recruited from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, C.S.M. Medical University (erstwhile KGMU), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. A total of 150 female subjects were randomly divided into two groups: 1) group of 75 subjects (with yogic intervention) and 2) a control group of 75 subjects (without yogic intervention). Assessment of psychological general wellbeing (tool) was used for all the subjects Assessment of psychological general well being (tool) was used for all the subjects (Cases and controls). This assessment was done twice first time in the beginning (baseline) and then after six months. Results : Anxiety decreased significantly (P<0.003) and depression decreased significantly (P<0.01) in the Yoga group. Positive wellbeing and general health improved significantly (P<0.02), and vitality improved significantly (P<0.01) after six months of Yoga therapy (Yoga Nidra) in the Yoga group compared with the control group. Conclusion : The current findings suggest that patients with menstrual irregularities having psychological problems improved significantly in the areas of their wellbeing, anxiety and depression by learning and applying a program based on Yogic intervention (Yoga Nidra).
  11 9,828 88
REVIEW ARTICLE
Yoga therapy for Schizophrenia
N Gangadhar Bangalore, Shivarama Varambally
July-December 2012, 5(2):85-91
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98212  PMID:22869990
Schizophrenia is one of the most severe mental disorders. Despite significant advances in pharmacotherapy, treatment remains sub-optimal, with many patients having persisting deficits, especially in cognitive and social functioning. Yoga as a therapy has proven to be effective as a sole or additional intervention in psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been significant interest in the application of yoga therapy in psychosis and schizophrenia. To review a) the evidence for the use of yoga therapy in patients with schizophrenia b) studies which have been done in this area, c) the barriers for reaching yoga to patients, and d) future directions, an English language literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and EBSCO as well as grey literature was done. Research reports have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of yoga as an add-on therapy in schizophrenia, particularly in improving negative symptomatology and social cognition. However, the biological underpinnings of this effect remain unclear, although there are some indications that hormones like oxytocin may contribute to the changes in social cognition.
  11 15,861 218
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