International Journal of Yoga
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   2011| January-June  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 21, 2011

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Neurohemodynamic correlates of 'OM' chanting: A pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging study
Bangalore G Kalyani, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Rashmi Arasappa, Naren P Rao, Sunil V Kalmady, Rishikesh V Behere, Hariprasad Rao, Mandapati K Vasudev, Bangalore N Gangadhar
January-June 2011, 4(1):3-6
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.78171  PMID:21654968
Background: A sensation of vibration is experienced during audible 'OM' chanting. This has the potential for vagus nerve stimulation through its auricular branches and the effects on the brain thereof. The neurohemodynamic correlates of 'OM' chanting are yet to be explored. Materials and Methods: Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), the neurohemodynamic correlates of audible 'OM' chanting were examined in right-handed healthy volunteers (n=12; nine men). The 'OM' chanting condition was compared with pronunciation of "ssss" as well as a rest state. fMRI analysis was done using Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 (SPM5). Results: In this study, significant deactivation was observed bilaterally during 'OM' chanting in comparison to the resting brain state in bilateral orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyri, thalami and hippocampi. The right amygdala too demonstrated significant deactivation. No significant activation was observed during 'OM' chanting. In contrast, neither activation nor deactivation occurred in these brain regions during the comparative task - namely the 'ssss' pronunciation condition. Conclusion: The neurohemodynamic correlates of 'OM' chanting indicate limbic deactivation. As similar observations have been recorded with vagus nerve stimulation treatment used in depression and epilepsy, the study findings argue for a potential role of this 'OM' chanting in clinical practice.
  33 24,814 671
Effect of integrated yoga practices on immune responses in examination stress - A preliminary study
Aravind Gopal, Sunita Mondal, Asha Gandhi, Sarika Arora, Jayashree Bhattacharjee
January-June 2011, 4(1):26-32
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.78178  PMID:21654972
Background: Stress is often associated with an increased occurrence of autonomic, cardiovascular, and immune system pathology. This study was done to evaluate the impact of stress on psychological, physiological parameters, and immune system during medical term -academic examination and the effect of yoga practices on the same. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on sixty first-year MBBS students randomly assigned to yoga group and control group (30 each). The yoga group underwent integrated yoga practices for 35 minutes daily in the presence of trained yoga teacher for 12 weeks. Control group did not undergo any kind of yoga practice or stress management. Physiological parameters like heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were measured. Global Assessment of Recent Stress Scale and Spielbergers State Anxiety score were assessed at baseline and during the examination. Serum cortisol levels, IL-4, and IFN-γ levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Result: In the yoga group, no significant difference was observed in physiological parameters during the examination stress, whereas in the control group, a significant increase was observed. Likewise, the indicators of psychological stress showed highly significant difference in control group compared with significant difference in yoga group. During the examination, the increase in serum cortical and decrease in serum IFN-γ in yoga group was less significant (P<0.01) than in the control group (P<0.001). Both the groups demonstrated an increase in serum IL-4 levels, the changes being insignificant for the duration of the study. Conclusion: Yoga resists the autonomic changes and impairment of cellular immunity seen in examination stress.
  23 15,044 411
Impact of Yoga Nidra on psychological general wellbeing in patients with menstrual irregularities: A randomized controlled trial
Khushbu Rani, SC Tiwari, Uma Singh, GG Agrawal, Archana Ghildiyal, Neena Srivastava
January-June 2011, 4(1):20-25
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.78176  PMID:21654971
Background: Yogic relaxation therapy (Yoga Nidra) has been effectively prescribed in conjunction with other medical and yogic procedures in the management of severe psychosomatic diseases, including cancer, bronchial asthma, colitis, peptic ulcer and menstrual irregularities. Aim of the study: To assess the impact of Yoga Nidra on psychological problems in patients with menstrual disorders. Materials and Methods: Patients were recruited from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, C.S.M. Medical University (erstwhile KGMU), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. A total of 150 female subjects were randomly divided into two groups: 1) group of 75 subjects (with yogic intervention) and 2) a control group of 75 subjects (without yogic intervention). Assessment of psychological general wellbeing (tool) was used for all the subjects Assessment of psychological general well being (tool) was used for all the subjects (Cases and controls). This assessment was done twice first time in the beginning (baseline) and then after six months. Results : Anxiety decreased significantly (P<0.003) and depression decreased significantly (P<0.01) in the Yoga group. Positive wellbeing and general health improved significantly (P<0.02), and vitality improved significantly (P<0.01) after six months of Yoga therapy (Yoga Nidra) in the Yoga group compared with the control group. Conclusion : The current findings suggest that patients with menstrual irregularities having psychological problems improved significantly in the areas of their wellbeing, anxiety and depression by learning and applying a program based on Yogic intervention (Yoga Nidra).
  17 11,654 271
Effect of integrated yogic practices on positive and negative emotions in healthy adults
Lakshmi Narasimhan, R Nagarathna, HR Nagendra
January-June 2011, 4(1):13-19
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.78174  PMID:21654970
Background : Studies on affective wellbeing have shown the beneficial role of positive emotions on cognitive processing and the harmful role of negative emotions on coping, stress and health status. Studies have shown that yoga practices reduce anxiety and depression and improve wellbeing. Objective: The aims of the study were to, (i) examine the safety and feasibility of conducting a weeklong free yoga camp, and (ii) assess its impact on the negative and positive affect in normal healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods : In this open-arm study 450 participants were taught integrated yoga module. It included asanas, pranayama, relaxation, notional correction and devotional sessions. Assessment was carried out on the first and last day of the camp, using a modified version of Positive Affect Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). It has ten questions each to measure positive (PA) and negative affect (NA). Nine questions have been added which are referred as other positive affect (OPA) and other negative affect (ONA) domains. Results: Three hundred and twelve sets of pre-post data were analyzed. There was an increase in PA of PANAS by 13% (P<0.001, Wilcoxon's signed rank test) and OPA by 17% (P<0.001). The NA reduced by 47% (P<0.001) and ONA by 48% (P<0.001). Conclusion: It is feasible and safe to conduct a weeklong yoga camp in an urban setting, and integrated yoga practices can reduce the negative affect and increase the positive affect within one week.
  16 9,445 263
Effect of yoga on mental health: Comparative study between young and senior subjects in Japan
Derebail Gururaja, Kaori Harano, Ikenaga Toyotake, Haruo Kobayashi
January-June 2011, 4(1):7-12
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.78173  PMID:21654969
Background : Japan has a large number of senior citizens. Yoga can be wisely applied in old age care. There is no any age restriction to practice yoga. The effect may differ by age. There is a need to study the mechanism of action of yoga with respect to age. Aim: This study was conducted in Japan to find the effect of yoga on mental health between young and senior people. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five normal healthy volunteers of both sexes were divided into two groups according to age. Fifteen participants of the age group between 65 to 75 years and 10 participants of the age group between 20 to 30 years were selected. This study was approved by the ethical committee of Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare. Selected individuals were subjected to 90 min of yoga classes once or twice a week for a month. Salivary amylase activity was assessed before and after yoga practice. State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was given before yoga on the first day and after one month of practice to assess the change in State anxiety and Trait anxiety. Results : Senior group - Salivary amylase activity decreased from 111.2±42.7 to 83.48±39.5 kU/L [average±standard deviation]. Younger group - Salivary amylase activity reduced from 60.74±31.8 to 42.39±24 kU/L. Senior group - State anxiety score decreased from 41.13 ±8.43 to 30.8±6.49, Trait anxiety score reduced from 45.66±7.5 to 40.73±8.3. Younger group - State anxiety score reduced from 38.7±4.8 to 30.8±4.1,Trait anxiety score reduced from 46.2±7.9 to 42.9±9.1. Changes were statistically significant with P<0.05. Conclusion: Decrease in Salivary amylase activity may be due to reduction in sympathetic response. Reduction in State and Trait anxiety score signifies that yoga has both immediate as well as long-term effect on anxiety reduction. Thus yoga helps to improve the mental health in both the groups.
  9 18,642 401
The importance of spirituality in supportive care
Giuseppina Messina, Stefania Anania, Claudia Bonomo, Laura Veneroni, Antonietta Andreoli, Francesca Mameli, Chiara Ortolina, Paola De Fabritiis, Maria Gaffuri, Francesco Imbesi, Egidio Moja
January-June 2011, 4(1):33-38
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.78181  PMID:21654973
Background: It has been shown that the pineal gland plays a fundamental role in mediating either the spiritual perception or the anticancer immunity by stimulating the endogenous production of anticancer cytokine interleukin (IL)-2. Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the impact of a spiritual approach consisting of Kriya Yoga program alone or in association with melatonin (MLT) or low-dose IL-2 plus MLT on the survival time in a group of metastatic cancer patients with life expectancy less than 1 year. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in 240 patients (M/F: 146/94; median age: 62 years, range: 34-71, suffering from non-small-cell lung cancer or gastrointestinal tumors) who were subdivided into 6 groups of 40 patients, treated with supportive care alone as a control group, supportive care plus Yoga, MLT alone, MLT plus Yoga, inteleukin-2 plus MLT, or IL-2 plus MLT plus Yoga. Results: The best results in terms of increased survival time were obtained by the association between neuroimmunotherapy with MLT plus IL-2 and Yoga program (2 years), which was significantly longer with respect to that achieved by supportive care alone, Yoga alone, or IL-2 plus MLT alone (1 year). Conclusions: This study would suggest that a spiritual therapeutic approach may improve the survival time of untreatable metastatic solid tumor patients.
  1 7,081 125
Models in complimentary medicine
Thaiyar M Srinivasan
January-June 2011, 4(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.78169  PMID:21654967
  - 7,573 109
Psychophysiological techniques and energy medicine
Satendra Singh
January-June 2011, 4(1):39-39
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.78184  PMID:21654975
  - 4,111 103
Yoga and lipid profile
Viroj Wiwanitkit
January-June 2011, 4(1):39-40
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.78185  PMID:21654974
  - 3,773 102
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