International Journal of Yoga
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   2013| July-December  | Volume 6 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 14, 2013

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Can yoga be used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease?
Dharmesh Kaswala, Shamik Shah, Avantika Mishra, Hardik Patel, Nishith Patel, Pravesh Sangwan, Ari Chodos, Zamir Brelvi
July-December 2013, 6(2):131-133
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.113416  PMID:23930033
Yoga methods including Pranayama are the best ways to prevent many diseases and their progression. Even though, Yoga is widely practiced, its effects on certain medical conditions have not been studied or reported. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of them. GERD is extremely common condition requiring frequent consumption of over-the-counter or prescribed proton pump inhibitors (PPI). In severe symptoms of GERD and in the presence of multiple etiologies, PPIs are insufficient to relieve the symptoms of gastric reflux. Regular and proper use of the Yoga along with PPI can control the severe symptoms of GERD and can avoid or delay the necessity of invasive procedures. This evidence-based case report focuses on the effects of Yoga on GERD. Our case report showed that regular practice of Kapalbhati and Agnisar kriya along with PPI, patients with hiatal hernia had improvement in severe symptoms of GERD, which were initially refractory to PPI alone.
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Effect of fast and slow pranayama on perceived stress and cardiovascular parameters in young health-care students
Vivek Kumar Sharma, Madanmohan Trakroo, Velkumary Subramaniam, M Rajajeyakumar, Anand B Bhavanani, Ajit Sahai
July-December 2013, 6(2):104-110
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.113400  PMID:23930028
Context: Perceived stress is higher for students in various healthcare courses. Previous studies have shown that pranayama practice is beneficial for combating stress and improve cardiovascular functions but both fast and slow pranayama practice produce different physiological responses. Aim: Present study was conducted to compare the effects of commonly practiced slow and fast pranayama on perceived stress and cardiovascular functions in young health-care students. Materials and Methods: Present study was carried out in Departments of Physiology and Advanced Centre for Yoga Therapy Education and Research, JIPMER, Pondicherry. Ninety subjects (age 18-25 years) were randomized to fast pranayama (Group 1), slow pranayama (Group 2) and control group (Group 3). Group 1 subjects practiced Kapalabhati, Bhastrika and Kukkuriya Pranayama while Group 2 subjects practiced Nadishodhana, Savitri and Pranav Paranayama. Supervised pranayama training was given for 30 min, 3 times a week for the duration of 12 weeks to Groups 1 and 2 subjects by certified yoga trainer. Following parameters were recorded at the baseline and after 12 weeks of training; perceived stress scale (PSS), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), rate pressure product (RPP), and double product (Do P). Results: There was a significant decrease in PSS scores in both Group 1 and Group 2 subjects but percentage decrease was comparable in these groups. Significant decrease in HR, DBP, RPP, and Do P was seen in only Group 2 subjects. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that both types of pranayama practice are beneficial in reducing PSS in the healthy subjects but beneficial effect on cardiovascular parameters occurred only after practicing slow pranayama.
  25,923 581 21
Male reproductive health and yoga
Pallav Sengupta, Prasenjit Chaudhuri, Koushik Bhattacharya
July-December 2013, 6(2):87-95
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.113391  PMID:23930026
Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility.
  17,247 383 3
Mindfulness-based stress reduction program in coronary heart disease: A randomized control trial
Manish J Parswani, Mahendra P Sharma, SS Iyengar
July-December 2013, 6(2):111-117
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.113405  PMID:23930029
Background: Psychological risk factors such as anxiety and depression have been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Stress can have an impact on the risk factors for the disease, such as high blood pressure (BP), physical inactivity and being overweight. Aims: Examine the effect of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program on symptoms of anxiety and depression, perceived stress, BP and body mass index (BMI) in patients with CHD. Settings and Design: Intervention was carried out at an Outpatient clinic. Parallel group - MBSR group; and treatment-as-usual group (TAU) - randomized control design with pre- (baseline), post-intervention and follow-up assessments was adopted. Materials and Methods: Thirty male patients, age range (30-65 years) with CHD were randomly allocated to either group. The therapeutic program comprised of eight weekly sessions of structured MBSR intervention for the MBSR group and one health education session for the TAU group. Regular medical intervention and monthly consultations with the cardiologist were consistent for both groups. The main outcome measures were: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale (perceived stress), BP and BMI. Statistical Analysis: Independent sample t-tests, chi square test and paired sample t-test were used. Results: All patients completed intervention in the MBSR group. Significant reduction was observed in symptoms of anxiety and depression, perceived stress, BP and BMI in patients of the MBSR group after the completion of intervention assessment. At 3-month follow-up, therapeutic gains were maintained in patients of the MBSR group. Conclusion: The MBSR program is effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression, perceived stress, BP and BMI in patients with CHD.
  13,134 456 33
A comparative study of the effects of asan, pranayama and asan-pranayama training on neurological and neuromuscular functions of Pondicherry police trainees
Madanmohan Trakroo, Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani, Gopal Krushna Pal, Kaviraja Udupa, N Krishnamurthy
July-December 2013, 6(2):96-103
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.113398  PMID:23930027
Background: Though neurological benefits of yoga training have been reported, lacunae still exists in understanding neurophysiological effects of such training. Hence, the present study was conducted to find the effect of yogasanas and pranayams on neurological and neuromuscular functions in healthy human volunteers and also determined differential effects of training in asan, pranayama and their combination. Materials and Methods: Eighty male trainees from Pondicherry Police Training School were randomly divided into asan, pranayama, and asan-pranayama groups who received a training of 4 days a week for 6 months and a control group. Electroencephalogram (EEG), nerve conduction (NC), electromyogram (EMG), visual evoked potentials (VEP), and auditory reaction time (ART) were recorded before and after the study period. NC, EMG, and VEP data were obtained from 28 subjects; EEG data from 48 subjects; and RT from 67 subjects. Intergroup differences were assessed by AVOVA/Kruskal-Wallis and intragroup differences by Student's t-test. Results and Discussion: Police trainees showed beneficial effects of yoga training, although they were undergoing intensive police training and the yoga training was relatively less intense. Alpha, theta, and total power of EEG increased as a result of asan training. A shortening of visual reaction time and a decrease in red-green discriminatory reaction time signifies an improved and faster processing of visual input. They also showed a decrease in resting EMG voltage, signifying better muscular relaxation following pranayama training. Beta, theta and total power of EEG increased. ART and red-green discriminatory reaction times decreased in the trainees, signifying a more alert state as well as improved central neural processing. A combination of asan and pranayama training for 6 months produced an improvement in motor and sensory nerve conduction. Total power of EEG, alpha and theta power as well as delta % increased, while reaction time decreased signifying an alert and yet relaxed state of the neuromuscular system. Summary and Conclusion: The present study has shown that 6 months training in asan, pranayama as well as their combination is effective in improving physiological functions of police trainees. They showed beneficial effects of yoga training, although they were undergoing intensive police training and the yoga training was relatively less intense. Hence, we recommend that yoga training be introduced in police training curricula.
  8,469 235 11
Efficacy of certain yogic and naturopathic procedures in premature ejaculation: A pilot study
Prasad Mamidi, Kshama Gupta
July-December 2013, 6(2):118-122
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.113408  PMID:23930030
Context: Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual disorder of young males. Even though there are number of treatment options available for PE, patient's satisfaction and drug side effects remain to be a problem. Non-pharmacological treatment options like Yoga and Naturopathy have been implicated in sexual fulfillment, pleasure and efficacy of some of these approaches has been established in previous studies. Aim: To assess the efficacy of certain yogic and naturopathic procedures in the management of PE. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 patients with PE satisfying the DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria were selected and allotted into two groups, Yoga group and Naturopathic group by following the randomization method. In the Yoga group, various asanas, mudra, bandha and pranayama were practiced 1 hour daily for 21 days. In the Naturopathy group, lower abdomen massage and steam bath, hip bath and lingasnana, mud pack on lower abdomen, and acupressure were done 1 hour daily for 21 days. Criteria of assessment were based on the scoring of Premature Ejaculation Severity Index (PESI). Statistical analysis was done by using paired and unpaired " t" tests. Results: In the Yoga group ( n = 6), 7.3% relief was observed ( P < 0.01) and in the Naturopathy group ( n = 6), 2.4% of relief was observed ( P > 0.05) on the total score of PESI. There was no significant difference ( P > 0.05) found in between the two groups. Conclusion: Both Yoga and Naturopathic procedures didn't provide relief (<25%) on total score of PESI.
  8,498 192 6
Additional effect of iyengar yoga and EMG biofeedback on pain and functional disability in chronic unilateral knee osteoarthritis
Gopal S Nambi, Amisha Atul Kumar Shah
July-December 2013, 6(2):123-127
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.113413  PMID:23930031
Background: There are limited data about Iyengar Yoga and EMG biofeedback in knee OA, although the efficacy of EMG biofeedback in the rehabilitation of patients with quadriceps muscle weakness secondary to immobilization, contracture, and joint surgery has been well established. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects who have fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected and divided into two groups (Group A and B). Both the groups were treated with EMG biofeedback, knee muscle strengthening exercises, and TENS. Group A received additionally Iyengar Yoga for 8 weeks. Both groups were evaluated by Visual Analog Scale and Modified WOMAC-Western Ontario McMaster Universities Scale. Results: Patients in both groups experienced significant reduction in pain and improvement in functional ability. In VAS scale Group A showed reduction of 56.83% ( P = 0.001) when compared with Group B 38.15% ( P ≤ 0.001). In modified WOMAC Scale, Group A showed reduction of 59.21% ( P = 0.001) when compared with Group B 34.08% ( P = 0.001). Conclusion : Adding Iyengar Yoga along with conventional therapy provides better results in chronic unilateral knee osteoarthritis in terms of pain and functional disability.
  6,451 220 3
Effect of kapalabhati on performance of six-letter cancellation and digit letter substitution task in adults
Balaram Pradhan
July-December 2013, 6(2):128-130
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.113415  PMID:23930032
Background : Attention and concentration are valuable skills for all fields of human activity. Training to improve these skills is described in ancient hatha yoga texts. Aims: To study the effect of 1-min Kapalabhati (KB1) and 5-min Kapalabhati (KB5) practice of the Yoga rapid breathing exercise, Kapalabhati (KB), on psychomotor performance, as measured by the six-letter cancellation task (SLCT) and digit-letter substitution task (DLST). Materials and Methods: Thirty-six subjects, 21 male (mean age 25.71 years, SD 2.10), 15 female (mean age 24.13 years, SD 2.23) participated in the study. All were participating in a 3-month pranayama training program, part of residential degree courses at Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Yoga University. The subjects were divided into two groups, and assessed on the SLCT and DLST, immediately before and after KB on two successive days. The first group did KB1 on day 1, and KB5 on day 2. For the second group, the order was reversed. Results: There were no significant differences on SLCT and DLST on Total and Net Scores between sessions for the same group, and between groups for the same session i.e. the effects of KB1 and KB5 were not distinguishable. However, both groups made more errors on DLST after the interventions, 525% after KB1 and 562.5% after KB5, P < 0.018 and P < 0.041, respectively (Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test). In contrast, scores on SLCT remained completely unchanged. Conclusions: Both KB1 and KB5 found no change on both SLCT and DLST. But, this kind of breathing practices leads to increases error score.
  5,220 255 5
Bridging the mind-body divide
TM Srinivasan
July-December 2013, 6(2):85-86
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.113389  PMID:23930025
  4,744 194 -
The Astonishing Brain and Holistic Consciousness: Neuroscience and Vedanta Perspectives
Alex Hankey
July-December 2013, 6(2):136-137
  3,415 123 -
Yoga therapy and schizophrenia
Somsri Wiwanitkit, Viroj Wiwanitkit
July-December 2013, 6(2):134-134
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.113419  PMID:23930034
  3,386 99 1
Author's reply
Bangalore N Gangadhar, Shivarama Varambally
July-December 2013, 6(2):134-135
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