International Journal of Yoga
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   2017| May-August  | Volume 10 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 2, 2017

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Mental stress: Neurophysiology and its regulation by Sudarshan Kriya Yoga
Sushil Chandra, Amit Kumar Jaiswal, Ram Singh, Devendra Jha, Alok Prakash Mittal
May-August 2017, 10(2):67-72
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.205508  PMID:28546676
Aim: The present study focuses on analyzing the effects of Sudarshan Kriya yoga (SKY) on EEG as well as ECG signals for stress regulation. To envision the regulation of stress Determination Test (DT) has been used. We have chosen a control group for contriving a cogent comparison that could be corroborated using statistical tests. Subjects and Methods: A total of 20 subjects were taken in the study, of which 10 were allotted to a control group. Electroencephalograph was taken during a DT task, before and after SKY the sky session with 30 days of SKY session given to the experimental group. No SKY was given to the control group. Results: We quantified mental stress using EEG, ECG and DT synergistically and used SKY to regulate it. We observed that alpha band power decreases in the frontal lobe of the brain with increasing mental stress while frontal brain asymmetry decreases with increasing stress tolerance. Conclusions: These EEG, ECG and DT shows a significant decrement in mental stress and improvement in cognitive performance after SKY, indicating SKY as a good alternative of medication for stress management.
  14 8,177 358
Effect of selected yogic practices on pain and disability in patients with lumbar spondylitis
Rajesh Kumar Manik, Ashok Kumar Mahapatra, Rajendra Gartia, Sumit Bansal, Ashis Patnaik
May-August 2017, 10(2):81-87
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.205516  PMID:28546678
Aim: The study was designed to find the effect of selected yogic practices on lumbar spondylitis. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, randomized study without a control trial. A total of 172 participants with lumbar spondylitis (age 21–79 years) from the outpatient department (OPD) of neurosurgery, AIIMS, Bhubaneswar, were randomly assigned to receive yoga therapy. The module of selected yogic practices consisted of pawanamuktasana series 1 (loosening and strengthening), asana, pranayama, and relaxation techniques Yoga Nidra. Statistics Analysis: Within groups, comparison was done by paired t-test, and between groups, ANOVA test was carried out to determine the significant difference among the various groups under study. Correlation regression analysis was done to measure the degree of linear relationship between pre- and post-study for various groups. Results: Significant differences were observed with yoga therapy in instant relieve practice group, in short-term practice group, and in long-term practice group (LTPG) with better results in LTPG. Conclusion: Selected yoga therapy has got the better result in management of pain in lumbar spondylitis.
  8 4,981 169
Anatomical correlation of core muscle activation in different yogic postures
Mrithunjay Rathore, Soumitra Trivedi, Jessy Abraham, Manisha B Sinha
May-August 2017, 10(2):59-66
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.205515  PMID:28546675
Faulty postures due to sedentary lifestyle cause weakening of core muscles which contributes to increased incidence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Although a few research studies have quantified the core muscle activity in various yogic exercises used in rehabilitation programs, evidence correlating it to functional anatomy is scarce. Such information is important for exercise prescription when formulating treatment plans for MSDs. Therefore, the objective of this review article is to examine the literature and analyze the muscle activity produced across various yoga postures to determine which type of yoga posture elicits the highest activation for the core muscle in individuals. Literature search was performed using the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library, NCBI, PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and web of science. The search terms contained: Core muscle activation and yogic posture OR yoga and rehabilitation OR intervention AND Electromyography. Activation of specific core muscle involved asanas which depended on trunk and pelvic movements. Description of specific yogic exercise as they relate to core muscles activation is described. This information should help in planning yogic exercises that challenge the muscle groups without causing loads that may be detrimental to recovery and pain-free movement. Knowledge of activation of muscles in various yogic postures can assist health-care practitioners to make appropriate decisions for the designing of safe and effective evidence-based yoga intervention for MSDs.
  8 9,871 504
Longitudinal and immediate effect of Kundalini Yoga on salivary levels of cortisol and activity of alpha-amylase and its effect on perceived stress
Jocelyn N Garcia-Sesnich, Mauricio Garrido Flores, Marcela Hernández Ríos, Jorge Gamonal Aravena
May-August 2017, 10(2):73-80
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_45_16  PMID:28546677
Context: Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. Aims: To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY) effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. Settings and Design: To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. Subjects and Methods: The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro–Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T-test or Mann–Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P< 0.05. Results: KY practice had an immediate effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. Conclusions: KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.
  6 5,921 272
Yoga practice improves the body mass index and blood pressure: A randomized controlled trial
Ashutosh Chauhan, Deepak Kumar Semwal, Satyendra Prasad Mishra, Ruchi Badoni Semwal
May-August 2017, 10(2):103-106
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_46_16  PMID:28546682
Background: Yoga, an ancient Indian system of exercise and therapy is an art of good living or an integrated system for the benefit of the body, mind, and inner spirit. Regular practice of yoga can help to increase blood flow to the brain, reduce stress, have a calming effect on the nervous system, and greatly help in reducing hypertension. Aim: Aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of 1-month yoga practice on body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP). Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted to determine the effect of yoga practice on 64 participants (age 53.6 ± 13.1 years) (experimental group) whereas the results were compared with 26 healthy volunteers (control group). We examined the effects of yoga on physiological parameters in a 1-month pilot study. Most of the participants were learner and practiced yoga for 1 h daily in the morning for 1 month. BMI and BP (systolic and diastolic) were studied before and after 1 month of yoga practice. Results: Yoga practice causes decreased BMI (26.4 ± 2.5–25.22 ± 2.4), systolic BP (136.9 ± 22.18 mmHg to 133 ± 21.38 mmHg), and diastolic BP (84.7 ± 6.5 mmHg to 82.34 ± 7.6 mmHg). On the other hand, no significant changes were observed in BMI and BP of control group. Conclusion: This study concludes that yoga practice has potential to control BMI and BP without taking any medication.
  6 6,910 259
Heart rate variability changes during and after the practice of bhramari pranayama
L Nivethitha, NK Manjunath, A Mooventhan
May-August 2017, 10(2):99-102
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.205518  PMID:28546681
Background: Yoga is an ancient Indian science as well as the way of life. Pranayama is one of the most important yogic practices. Bhramari pranayama was shown to produce a reduction in blood pressure after the practice and thus reported to produce parasympathetic activity. However, there are no known studies reported the heart rate variability (HRV) changes either during or after the practice of Bhramari. Hence, this study aims at evaluating the HRV changes during and after the practice. Materials and Methods: Sixteen (9 males, 7 females) healthy volunteers with the mean ± standard deviation age of 23.50 ± 3.01 years were recruited. All the subjects performed Bhramari pranayama for the duration of 5 min. Assessments were taken before, during, and immediately after the practice of pranayama. Statistical analysis was performed using students paired samples t-test, Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and repeated measures of analysis of variance and Post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. Results: Results of this study showed a significant increase in HR and low frequency spectrum of HRV and a significant reduction in high frequency spectrum of HRV during the practice of Bhramari which revert to normal after the practice. Conclusion: Results of this study suggests that there might be a parasympathetic withdrawal during the practice of Bhramari. However, further studies are required to warrant the findings of this study.
  6 8,093 327
The impact of the “Yogic Lifestyle” on cancer prognosis and survival: Can we target cancer stem cells with yoga?
Kavita Beri
May-August 2017, 10(2):95-98
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.205512  PMID:28546680
Cancer has recently been known to originate from stem cell-like cells, called cancer stem cells (CSCs). Their unique properties of self-duplication, multiplication, as well as migration give the CSC resistance over conventional cancer therapies. Newer therapies are in developmental stage to target these stem cell-like populations and become the vanguard of future treatments. Several complementary and alternative treatments have been used in cancer management as an adjunct to conventional therapy to improve the overall quality of life and reduce recurrence. Yoga stands as the third most popular of all complementary and alternative medicine treatments currently used in cancer patients today. Preliminary results show that yoga modulates neural, hormonal, and immune functions at a cellular level. The scope of this commentary is to discuss the current evidence-based medicine on yoga and its effect on CSCs.
  4 5,204 155
Biophotons as subtle energy carriers
TM Srinivasan
May-August 2017, 10(2):57-58
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_18_17  PMID:28546674
  2 5,227 238
The Hatayogapradīpikā: Jyotsnāyutā
Raghavendra Bhat, TM Srinivasan
May-August 2017, 10(2):111-112
  - 2,189 111
Comment on models in medicine
Thyyar Madabushi Ravindranath
May-August 2017, 10(2):110-110
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_6_17  PMID:28546684
  - 2,458 104
Effect of lotus posture on acupuncture meridian energies: A controlled trial
Kuntal Ghosh, Alex Hankey, TM Srinivasan
May-August 2017, 10(2):88-94
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.205511  PMID:28546679
Background: Many studies have assessed Yoga practices using instruments such as AcuGraph, which measures conductances at Jing-Well points of acupuncture meridians. Such studies find that participation in Yoga programs ranging from a weekend to many months systematically increases subtle energy. Here, we report comparison of Jing-Well point conductances before and after sitting in Lotus Posture with those before and after sitting in a chair. Methods: This was a controlled study conducted on 52 male Yoga practitioners (mean age in years 23.03 ± 3.23), all with >1 year experience of Yoga practices. Participants were alternately assigned into two groups, sitting in Lotus Posture and sitting in a chair. Each was measured on 3 successive days, before and after sitting as instructed for 10 min on the 1st day, 20 min on the 2nd day, and 30 min on the 3rd day. Results: The two groups yielded completely different results: those sitting in Lotus Posture for 30 min showed increases in subtle energy levels (E_Ls) in all acupuncture meridians; those sitting in chair produced universal decreases. Results for 10 and 20 min showed how these changes in energy values took time to build up with increasing time. Conclusions: Sitting in Lotus Posture is held to strongly stimulate subtle E_Ls, so results agreed with the experimental hypothesis. Nevertheless, decreases in E_Ls of those sitting in a chair were surprising since the rest might be expected to have no effect.
  - 3,925 174
Hydration and hot yoga: Encouragement, behaviors, and outcomes
Casey J Mace Firebaugh, Brandon Eggleston
May-August 2017, 10(2):107-109
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_8_17  PMID:28546683
Context: Currently, the literature on hot yoga is lacking, and there is still much to understand regarding the safety of these practices. However, one point of safety often emphasized is hydration during the practice of hot yoga. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine hydration encouragement by hot yoga instructors and hydration behaviors and related outcomes by hot yoga participants. Methods: A cross-sectional study (n = 700) collected self-report data on demographics, types and frequency of yoga practiced, hydration behaviors, and self-report measures of adverse outcomes experienced by participants during hot yoga. Associations between hydration encouragement, protective behaviors, and adverse outcomes were analyzed through Chi-square tests. Results: Every protective hydration behavior was significantly associated with instructor encouragement (P < 0.05). Hydration before or during hot yoga participation was associated with a lower occurrence of dehydration symptoms (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Hot yoga instructors hold a key role in encouraging hydration and student safety outcomes.
  - 3,652 129
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